What is LPG?

What is LPG?
Added Date : 27 12 2018

LPG (liquid petroleum gas), which is a derivative of petroleum (fossil fuels), is a type of fuel that is becoming widespread in our country and in the world. LPG provides a great advantage in terms of being stored and transported in liquid form, its calorific value and combustion engines efficiency is higher than other crude oil, and its use and widespread use. In addition, LPG is used for heating purposes in the industry, especially in processes, houses and villas, and in recent years it has been used as an alternative fuel in automobiles as "autogas-lp gas"

The increasing widespread use of natural gas in industry and residential heating in our country also indirectly affects LPG consumption. Another factor that increases LPG consumption is the unprogrammed natural gas cuts that we have experienced from time to time. Natural gas interruption, especially in industrial facilities and cogeneration units established to use natural gas, means that the industrial facility stops and ceases its production. For this reason, industrial establishments working with natural gas either work with LPG backup or use natural gas at a price higher than its normal value in order not to be exposed to the risk of interruption

LPG are hydrocarbons or mixtures obtained from petroleum or natural gas, liquefied under pressure, mainly propane, propene, butane, butene and their isomers. These gases liquefied under a certain pressure according to their critical temperature

Mixture LPG, Commercial Butane, Commercial Propane, Odorless LPG specifications specified in TS 2178 standard; LPG used as automotive fuel must comply with the properties specified in TS EN 589 Standard. Turkey LPG gas used in the mixture the molar ratio of the TS 2179 Standard 30% propane, 70% butane mixture.

LPG is obtained from fuel sources in two ways;

a- From natural gases

b- Refineries

a- From Natural Gases: Methods of obtaining from natural gases start with the separation of methane, which is very light, propane, which is heavier than ethane gases, by compression, respectively. Then they are separated into various fractions by adsorption and absorption methods. Finally, it is subjected to a distillation process to remove residual substances that may have side effects. If the natural gas is not mixed with crude oil, its LPG ratio is low

  • Refineries: Refining of crude oil and LPG are respectively subjected to the following processes. It is first obtained from catalytic (or thermal) reforming and thermal (or catalytic) cracking processes as a mixture. Gases from here are obtained as butane and propane by absorption, distillation, condensation and fractionation processes. As stated above, it is heavier than air as gas. Therefore, it should be considered that the mixing gas is present at the bottom. In the cracking method, products are obtained with the effect of the boiling point difference by passing through the columns at approximately 400-600 C temperature at 85 bar pressure

LPG (liquefield petroleum gas) is a colorless, odorless, flammable and flammable organic chemical substance that is gaseous under normal conditions (1 bar atmospheric pressure, 0 C temperature). It exists in liquid form under certain pressure and turns into gas phase by evaporation at atmospheric pressure. It is heavier than air. Mixing of evaporated LPG with air in certain proportions causes it to become explosive. It is slightly soluble in water. LPG vapor has little narcotic effect. LPG evaporates in humid environments and creates a characteristic fog layer

  1. a) Mixing Ratios

Butane and Propane are mixed in certain proportions and made available as LPG. The mixture molar ratio in the mix is ​​generally used LPG LPG name as turkey is 30% to 70% Propane Butane

  1. b) Scenting

Some of the substances with special odor such as mercaptans (R-SH), Sulfur (S) are mixed into LPG for odoring, allowing users to easily notice gas leaks. Scenting should be done in accordance with TS EN589 and TS 2178 standards

  1. c) Toxicity and Its Effect on Human Health

LPG is not toxic, but because it is heavier than air in its environment, it displaces the oxygen of the air and causes oxygen deficiency in the environment. Therefore, it can cause death. Another effect in closed environments (especially the environments where water heaters are used) is that the burning gases emit carbon dioxide CO2 gas as a result of the burning and as a result, they turn into irregular burning and emit CO gas. This is a poisonous gas and is generally referred to as "Geyser Poisoning" in public opinion.

If 10% LPG is found in a closed environment, dizziness and nausea will occur within 2 minutes. Since the person in the environment will remain without oxygen, he may suffocate and die. In addition, the burning gas in the environment will also drain the oxygen inside

The human body biologically reacts safely and healthily in environments with temperatures between 15.5 C and 27 C. The highest ambient temperature that the body can handle in different situations is 144 C for 5 minutes. The respiratory system is more sensitive to heat than the body. Therefore, when air at a temperature of more than 49C enters the lungs, a drop in blood pressure may occur. Inhaled hot air can cause excess fluid (edema) in the lungs, which can lead to death

  1. d) Explosion Limits

LPG is explosive in closed environments. With air, flammable gases, vapors and dusts can only explode within a certain concentration range. It is not possible for an explosion to occur in cases where the oxygen amount is too high (very poor mixture) or there is too much scarcity (rich mixture). These limits are defined as the lower and upper limits of the explosion. Here, the explosion limit is between 1.9% as the lower limit and 9.6% as the upper limit of the LPG molar ratio in the air. The lower explosion limit of commercial propane is 2.15% and the upper explosion limit is 9.6%

With flammable liquids and gases, it is possible to determine explosion limits and explosion range. The definition of explosion limits (s) refers to the range of concentration of oxidant and dust or gas in which the flame expands gradually. Explosion range is defined as the area between the upper explosion limit and the lowest explosion limit.

Flammability limits A mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air A gas in an air composition known as the "Flash Range" will not burn and ignite without being in the range. The lower limit of this range is called the "Lower Flash Limit". There is missing hydrocarbon gas at this boundary to amplify and support combustion. The upper limit of this width is called the "Upper Flash Limit" where there is air to amplify and support combustion

  1. e) Explosion


Since the oxygen required for the combustion of C and H in organic substances is in their own molecules, the molecules come into contact with each other. CO, H2O and N2 gases are formed at the end of the reaction that occurs in a very short time (1 / 1,000 to 1/700 seconds)

The degree of effectiveness of the explosion is a pressure shock caused by the oxidation or decomposition reaction caused by the gas mixture being heated at high temperatures and not allowing expansion. This shock is directly proportional to the pressure and temperature of the gases. The degree of impact of the explosion is called the detonation rate

An explosion occurs when the combustion occurs at one end of a closed pipe that sends out a strong shock wave and flammable mixtures that cause sudden compression, heating, flash burning and the reaction of these mixtures.

  1. f) Detenation

It is an explosion that spreads with supersonic velocity and is characterized by a shock wave. When some systems are subjected to effects such as impact or electric spark, they undergo a rapid chemical change that can be called suddenly, causing a large energy spread that is not proportional to the effect. Detonation is the release of energy or sudden burning or exothermic event at a speed of 1,000 meters per second, which is faster than sound. The energy released in each explosion increases the amount of movement of the explosion product gas molecules. Therefore, sudden pressure increase occurs. The maximum pressure that occurs in the environment during the explosion is called explosion pressure

Causes of explosion

Naked fire sparks

Electricity Friction

Coup Static Electricity


Static Electricity

Coup heat

Natural phenomena

Vibration effects

Usage areas of LPG

  1. In residences; Independent Houses and Villas, Public housing and sites
  2. In Tourism Sector; Hotels, Holiday Villages, Recreational facilities, Restaurants
  3. Industrial Enterprises: Casting, metalwork and Heat treatment, Chemistry and Plastics, Cogeneration, Paint shops, Ceramic, porcelain and glass, Textile, Air conditioning systems
  4. Agriculture and Livestock: Poultry Farms, Drying Grain, Slaughterhouses, Greenhouses
  5. In the Food Sector; Food Factories, Dairy Bakery Products and Bakery Ovens
  6. In vehicles; Car, bus, truck

In the above applications, LPG is widely used in many processes such as Heating, Hot Water, Cooking, Air Conditioning, Electricity, Steam and Hot Air Supply, Drying

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